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高考英语七选五备考策略_高考英语解题攻略

来源: 英语七选五 作者: 解题攻略
  熟悉各种体裁的不同范式和根据设空位置确定解题策略,学会融会贯通,遇到不同语篇便迎刃而解了。下面为大家准备了高考英语七选五备考策略,希望可以帮助到大家。

高考英语七选五备考策略,高考英语解题攻略

  一、熟悉各种体裁文章的结构图

  高考中主要的文章体裁:说明文、议论文和包括夹叙夹议的记叙文的结构图。

  以全国I卷七选五为例。

  首先,浏览全文可以看出这是一篇说明文。首句是全文主题句,引领全文,主要介绍了在房间装饰设计中颜色的重要性。

  接着快速略读每段第一句,中间几段详细说明了小、中、大三种规格的装饰颜色的不同作用。

  第一段Color is fundamental in home design—something you’ll always have in every room ...

  第二段But good news is that there’re really only three kinds of decisions you need to make about color in your home: the small ones, the medium ones, and the large ones ...

  第三段 38 . They’re the little spots of color like throw pillows, mirrors and baskets that most of us use to add visual interest to our rooms ...

  第三段Medium color choices are generally furniture pieces such as sofas, dinner tables or bookshelves ...

  第四段The large color decisions in your rooms concern the walls, ceilings, and floors.

  根据脑子里的结构图,答案一目了然。所以38题选D. Small color choices are the ones were most familiar with。

  二、根据设空位置确定解题策略

  高考设空位置以段中句为主,段首和段尾一般各一句。首句常是段落的主题句;尾句通常是总结句;而段中是起承上启下的过渡句。根据试题所在的位置采取不同的解题策略。

  1. 设空在段首

  通常是段落主题句。认真阅读后文内容,根据上文提到的体裁结构图法或段落一致性原则,查找同义词或其他相关的词,推断出主题句。如:

  38 “I can tell you about one young couple,”says Bridges. “They’re learning to traditional dances. They arrive at the class in low spirits and they leave with a smile. 39 ”

  A. So why do we dance?

  F. Dancing seems to change their feeling completely.

  第38空在段首,应为主旨句。“一对年轻的夫妻的故事。他们来学习跳舞之初,情绪低落,但是在他们离开的时候却面带微笑。”这说明跳舞可以调节人的情绪,这正是其魅力所在。故选A项。

  第39题在段尾,应是结论句。根据该段内容,应选F项。

  2. 设空在段尾

  通常是结论或概括性语句。注意在选项中查找表示结果、结论或总结等的信号词,如so, therefore, as a result, thus, hence, in short, to sum up, to conclude, in a word等,选项中也可发现前文的同义词。如:

  The large color decisions in your rooms concern the walls, ceilings, and floors. Whether you’re looking at wallpaper or paint, the time, effort and relative expense put into it are significant. 40 .

  E. It’s not really a good idea to use too many small color pieces

  F. So it pays to be sure, because you want to get it right the first time

  这里是考查全文最后一段的最后一句,显然这是总结句,so是一个明显的信号词。所以选F项。

  3. 设空在段中

  段中句要求考生找出与前后句衔接的选项。解题时,将选项代入原文,如果前后内容连贯,符合逻辑,就能得出正确答案。主要解题技巧有逻辑衔接和词汇衔接。

  (1)逻辑衔接。指前后的逻辑关系,如因果关系、转折或对比关系等。如:

  Over the years, there have been a number of different techniques to help designers approach this important point. 37 , they can get a little complex.

  A. While all of them are useful

  C. If you’re experimenting with a color

  空格前后是转折关系,“虽然它们(这些技巧)都有用处,但是它们有点复杂。”其中they指代前句的different techniques。故选A项。

  (2)词汇衔接。

  ①词汇复现。这是保证语篇前后衔接的一种写作手段,即在上下文不同位置对同一个概念进行重复描述。复现关系主要指原词复现、同义词、近义词复现、反义词复现和派生词复现等。如:

  (全国II卷)...Working out in the morning provides additional benefits beyond being physically fit.

  Your productivity is improved. Exercising makes you more awake and ready to handle whatever is ahead of you for the day...

  Your metabolism gets a head start.

  39 Studies found that people who woke up early for exercise slept better than those who exercised in the evening.

  B. Your quality of sleep improves.

  C. You prefer healthy food to fast food.

  根据体裁结构图法,这是总—分—总的说明文,各分段都以“your”开头,按原词复现法便知选B项。

  ②代词的指代。为避免重复,用代词替代前文已出现的事物。看到空格前后和选项中有代词应当重视,看看是指上文的哪个词或什么内容。分析上下句,理清指代关系,并且要注意代词的数、格与前面的指代事物相呼应。如:

  39 . They require a bigger commitment than smaller ones, and they have a more powerful effect on the feeling of a space.

  E. It’s not really a good idea to use too many small color pieces.

  G. Color choices in this range are a step up from the small ones in two major ways.

  根据后文中的代词they,前文出现的事物应选复数,下一句提到“中等物品颜色的选择和小物品作比较的两个方面:一是花费,二是对空间感觉的影响”。they与选项G中的two major ways相呼应。所以选G项。

  平时阅读过程中,考生要培养良好的体裁语篇意识,采用体裁结构分析模式进行阅读,能敏捷地识别语篇的篇章结构,从而提高阅读水平和阅读能力。这种能力还能运用到阅读理解、完形填空、语法填空、短文改错和写作等各题型中。掌握以上方法技巧,考生需要进行强化训练才能熟能生巧,在高考中做到有的放矢。

  高考英语备考策略:善用这三点,巧选过渡句

  全国卷中的“七选五”是在一篇短文中抽出五句话,抽走的句子可能在段首、段中或段尾。段首一般是主题句或总起句,段末(文末)一般是总结性的句子。这些我们一般容易得分。因而本文主要讨论的是,当抽出的句子出现于段中时,我们应如何解决。

  一、善用“逗号”

  我们来看如下两道真题:

  全国I卷

  Training for a marathon requires careful preparation and steady, gradual increases in the length of the runs.    36    , buy the best-fitting, best-built running shoes you can find.

  During the first week, do not think about distance, but run five minutes longer each day.    38    , it is wise to take a day off to rest.

  A. After six days

  B. For a good marathon runner

  C. Before you begin your training

  D. With each day, increase the distance by a half mile

  E. If they still feel good, you can begin running in them

  F. Time spent for preparation raises the quality of training

  G. Now you are ready to figure out a goal of improving distance and time

  全国I卷

  Color is fundamental in home design-something you’ll always have in every room. A grasp of how to manage color in your spaces is one of the first steps to creating rooms you’ll love to live in. Do you want a room that’s full of life?Professional?Or are you just looking for a place to relax after a long day?   36   , color is the key to make a room feel the way you want it to feel.

  Over the years, there have been a number of different techniques to help designers approach this important point.    37   , they can get a little complex. But good news is that there’re really only three kinds of decisions you need to make about color in your home: the small ones, the medium ones, and the large ones.

  A. While all of them are useful

  B. Whatever you’re looking for

  C. If you’re experimenting with a color

  D. Small color choices are the ones were most familiar with

  E. It’s not really a good idea to use too many small color pieces

  F. So it pays to be sure, because you want to get it right the first time

  G. Color choices in this range are a step up from the small ones in two major ways

  不难发现,这四个空有着相同的特点,那就是划线后有个逗号,后面跟的是一个句子。如果遇到这样的设空,选项的范围马上就缩小了。因为这说明选项要么是“非句子”,如果是句子,则需要有连词。因此,高考題的36空,只剩下A, B, C可以选择,而后再利用段首的requires careful preparation,我们可以锁定C Before you begin your training,因为准备事项是发生在跑步之前的。而37空,同理,也只有A, B, C可以选项,再利用上下文的During the first week,take a day off,锁定A,因为一周只有7天,1天休息,那就是6天之后。

  高考题的36空,同理,我们剩下A, B, C可以选择。再利用前两句的“Do you want a room ...”,“Or are you just looking for a place ...”锁定B. Whatever you’re looking for,内容与上文承接。至于37题,可以利用代词they,我们尝试将A代入原文,从句意来看“尽管所有(的办法)都有用,但是可能有点复杂”,意思上说得通,且下文还有“But good news is that ...”更确定A为正确答案。〔方法有用,但有些复杂。可是好消息是(即使复杂)你所要做的决定只有三种〕

  认为这样的题目属于容易得分的题目,逗号虽不起眼,却也有它微妙之处。考生们遇到这样的题目一定要争取拿分。

  二、善用“句式”

  全国I卷

  A code uses symbols to replace words, phrases, or sentences. To read the message of a real code, you must have a code book.    39    For example,“bridge” might stand for “meet ”and “out” might stand for “me.” The message “Bridge out” would actually mean “Meet me.”   40    However, it is also hard to keep a code book secret for long. So codes must be changed frequently.

  A. It is very hard to break a code without the code book.

  B. In any language, some letters are used more than others.

  C. Only people who know the keyword can read the message.

  D. As long as there have been codes, people have tried to break them.

  E. You can hide a message by having the first letters of each word spell it out.

  F. With a code book, you might write down words that would stand for other words.

  G. Another way to hide a message is to use symbols to stand for specific letters of the alphabet.

  第40也是一个过渡句,且根据however我们知道抽出的句子是与后面的句子成转折关系。但若再观察,我们会发现选项中A所用的句式跟however后的句子是一样的,it is hard to do ... . However, it is also hard to do ...,最后串句成段:“沒有密码本,很难解密。但也很难长久地保‘密”,意思上正确,确定A。

  全国Ⅱ卷

  If you are already making the time to exercise,it is good indeed!With such busy lives, it can be hard to try and find the time to work out.    36   Working out in the morning provides additional benefits beyond being physically fit.

  A. You will stick to your diet.

  B. Your quality of sleep improves.

  C. You prefer healthy food to fast food.

  D. There is no reason you should exercise the morning.

  E. You can keep your head clear for 4-10 hours after exercise.

  F. After you exercise, you continue to burn calories throughout the day.

  G. If you are planning to do exercise regularly or you’re doing it now, then listen up!

  通过阅读上文,可知是与锻炼有关的话题。且这一段是全文第一段,属于总起段,选项A提到diet, 选项B提到quality of sleep, 选项C提到food等,其实都属于提到比较细节的内容,很少会放在第一段。再仔细阅读,不难发现选项G的句式与段首的句式相似,If you are(already)doing ...,代入原文:如果你已经能腾出时间锻炼,很好!毕竟生活繁忙,我们很难挤出时间锻炼。如果计划长期锻炼或者你已经这样做了,听好了!在早上锻炼的话,你所得到的好处远远不止身体健康这么简单。上下文通顺,锁定答案G。

  全国Ⅱ卷

  Another way of setting realistic goals is to analyze your short and long term objectives, keeping in mind your beliefs, values and strengths. Remember that goals are flexible.

  39    They also need to be measurable. You must keep these points in mind while setting your goals.

  A. This can affect your work.

  B. So how should you motivate yourself?

  C. However, this should not discourage you.

  D. So why should we try to set specific goals?

  E. They can change according to circumstances.

  F. Motivation is what you need most to do a good job.

  G. Without motivation you can neither set a goal nor reach it.

  “goals are flexible”,劃空后是“They also need to be measurable”,不难利用代词they和句式确定E为正确答案。

  这一类题给考生留下足够的线索,考生如果发现有些选项的句式跟短文的上下文相似,可以把它作为备选。但考试说明指出:阅读“主要考查考生对文章的整体内容和结构及上下文逻辑意义的理解和掌握。”,所以“逗号”“句式”它们是帮助我们迅速解题的依据,但我们也不能这样轻率地确定答案,依然得将选项句子代入原文去判断,看是否上下文通顺、有意义。

  三、善于“概括”

  全国I卷

  A code uses symbols to replace words, phrases, or sentences. To read the message of a real code, you must have a code book.     39    For example,“bridge” might stand for “meet ”and “out” might stand for “me.” The message “Bridge out” would actually mean “Meet me.”   40    However, it is also hard to keep a code book secret for long. So codes must be changed frequently.

  A. It is very hard to break a code without the code book.

  B. In any language, some letters are used more than others.

  C. Only people who know the keyword can read the message.

  D. As long as there have been codes, people have tried to break them.

  E. You can hide a message by having the first letters of each word spell it out.

  F. With a code book, you might write down words that would stand for other words.

  G. Another way to hide a message is to use symbols to stand for specific letters of the alphabet.

  第39空,利用上文“you must have a code book”,我们将A, F这两个含有”code book”的选项作为备选,利用下文For example,“bridge” might stand for “meet” and “out” might stand for “me.”,确定F为正确答案:有了密码本,你可以写下一些词,这些词本身另有含义。比如,“bridge”可能代表“meet”,“out”代表”Me”。

  因为For example的出现,表明下文即将对上文作出解释,逻辑上是有关系的。而笔者认为,既然下文是对上文的具体化描述,那划空句可以理解为概括句(只是概括的内容相对较少),所以概括句未必一定就是在段首,段中也有可能。再看下面这个例子。

  全国I卷

  The friends who introduced me to camping thought that it meant to be a pioneer.

  37    We slept  in  a  tent, cooked over an open fire, and walked a long distance to take the shower and use the bathroom. This brief visit with Mother Nature cost me two days off from work, recovering from a bad case of sunburn and the doctors bill for my sons food poisoning.

  A. This time there was no tent.

  B. Things are going to be improved.

  C. The trip they took me on was a rough one.

  D. I was to learn a lot about camping since then,however.

  E. I must say that I have certainly come to enjoy camping.

  F. After the trip, my family became quite interested in camping.

  G. There was no shade as the trees were no more than 3 feet tall.

  第37空,划线后描述的是作者露营的情况:睡帐篷,用篝火煮食,要洗澡得步行较长距离等……这些具体的情况都说明这次露营条件一般,我们确定C. The trip they took me on was a rough one. 为正确答案。

  全国I卷

  Medium color choices are generally furniture pieces such as sofa, dinner tables or bookshelves.    39   . They require a bigger commitment than smaller ones, and they have a more powerful effect on the feeling of a space.

  A. While all of them are useful

  B. Whatever you’re looking for

  C. If you’re experimenting with a color

  D. Small color choices are the ones were most familiar with

  E. Its not really a good idea to use too many small color pieces

  F. So it pays to be sure, because you want to get it right the first time

  G. Color choices in this range are a step up from the small ones in two major ways

  利用上文讲过的“逗号”法,这里没有逗号,可以排除ABC三个选项。又因为这段是讲Medium color choices,可以排除D,E。剩下F,G两个选项,通过阅读下文发现They require a bigger commitment..., and they have a more powerful effect ... 发现是讲到两个方面的事情(且是比较级),此时可以确定G为正确答案:这个范畴的颜色比起色块小的颜色,在两个方面有所升级。选项G属于概括性的句子,而后面的内容则是具体化描述,使得上下文合理、通顺。

  最后,本文主要是提出三种解七选五过渡句的方法,尽管这些方法依然需要借助“关键词”或是“逻辑关系——因果,转折”等方法,但笔者认为,多结合一种方法,则多一份保障。除了学生常用的“关键词”法外,希望考生能关注到“句式”,进而关注到“篇章”,多维思考,解决问题。但考生们仍得记住,技巧只是辅助,仍得牢记阅读“主要考查考生对文章的整体内容和结构及上下文逻辑意义的理解和掌握”,找出备选项后,一定得将其代入文中,看看它的加入能否让上下文意思连贯、通顺。

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